Application domains such as multimedia, databases, and parallel computing, require operating system services with high performance and high functionality. Existing operating systems provide fixed interfaces and implementations to system services and resources. This makes them inappropriate for applications whose resource demands and usage patterns are poorly matched by the services provided. The SPIN operating system enables system services to be defined in an application-specific fashion through an extensible microkernel. It offers applications fine-grained control over a machine's logical and physical resources through run-time adaptation of the system to application requirements.